LIMONENE BREAK DOWN
Formula : CH
Molecular Mass : 136.23404 g/mol
Boiling Point : 176 °C (349 °F)
Vapor Pressure : 1.50 mm (25 °C)
Lethal Dose (LD50) : Currently Unknown for Humans, LD50 => 5.5g/kg for mice (Compare to Nicotine : for mice - 50 mg/kg, for humans - 0.5-1 mg/kg)
Aroma : Citrus - Some strains tend to express higher levels of the limonene terpene, and oftentimes it's the strong lemon scent that gives it away.
- Elevated mood
- Stress Relief
- Antifungal properties
- Antibacterial properties
- May help relieve heartburn and gastric reflux
- Improves absorption of other terpenes and chemicals by the way of the skin, mucous membranes and digestive tract
Medical Value : Antifungal, anti-bacterial, anti-carcinogenic, dissolves gallstones, mood-enhancer; may treat gastrointestinal complications, heartburn, depression
Also Found In : Fruit rinds, Rosemary (rosemary also has high levels of pinene) , Juniper, Peppermint
**Look in my tabs under THE HAPPY CHEF for recipes that adds the ingredient of this particular terpene.
Antidepressant - Relieves symptoms of depression.
Anti fungal - Inhibits the growth of fungus.
Anti-inflammatory - Reduces inflammation.
Anti-Proliferative - Inhibits cancer cell growth.
Anxiolytic - Relieves anxiety.
Gastro-Oesophgeal Reflux - Reduces acid reflux.
Immunostimulant - Stimulates the immune system.
- While not being toxic to humans, a recent study done in the United Kingdom shows that allergic reactions to limonene, and another common terpene linalool, are more common than previously thought. Yes , I have in fact met some individuals that are allergic to cannabis.
- In an edition in Brain Research, this study published in April 2012 found limonene to exhibit anxiolytic-like effects and was recommended as a new treatment for anxiety, due to it being so potent and with so mild of side effects.
- This 2012 study found limonene to be notable and thus a significant way to treat depression, as examined by its role as a Corticotropin-releasing factor in the brains of rodents.
- A 2010 study examined the anti-inflammatory effects of limonene and found it to be a potential treatment for asthma due to its ability to inhibit cytokines. This 2013 study went so far as to recommend using limonene as a dietary supplement due to its powerful anti-inflammatory effects on the intestines - which could aid those suffering from gastrointestinal issues. In this 2012 study , limonene had also shown to have strong enough inhibition of inflammation to actually be chemo-preventive, meaning it prevents, reverses, and protects against cancer. There has been numerous studies done on limonenes effectiveness in fighting cancer through stimulating apoptosis and other mechanisms.
- In this 2011 study , perillyl alcohol, a constituent of limonene, was in Phase I/II trial analyzing its "capacity to arrest gliomagenesis." For months, some cases years, a daily intranasal application of 440 mg perillyl alcohol was given to 89 adults with recurrent glioblastoma. It was then found that perillyl alcohol increased the survival rate of patients and also shown having virtually no long-term side effects. It was also found that perilllyl alcohol isn't the only constituent of limonene to fight cancer. In Crowell's 1994 study, including a Phase I/II clinical trial in 1998 and numerous other studies, found d-limonene to be effective at combating advanced cancers and was recommended for further research. Since they first began being heavily researched, over two decades ago, it has been known that d-limonene exhibits "multiple antitumorigenic effects" and that both d-limonene and perillyl alcohol have been shown effective against numerous types of cancer including breast, skin, prostate, and pancreatic cancers. These same abilities demonstrated to combat cancer have also been shown effective from many cannabinoids.
Also check out these Terpenes - Know Your Terpenes :
Also check -
SOURCES AND REFERENCE LINKS :
Limonene by Wikipedia
Limonene by leaf online
the Leaf online